Arsenic in rice

Arsenic in Rice: Should You Be Concerned

  1. Arsenic is a toxic substance found in some foods, especially rice and rice-based products. This is a major concern for people who eat a lot of rice
  2. Keeping rice safe. Rice tends to take up more arsenic from the environment than other cereal crops, depending on the variety of rice and how it's grown. The arsenic in rice also tends to be a more toxic form. It has the potential to increase the risk of illnesses in humans, including cancer. This does not mean you should not eat rice
  3. Arsenic finds its way into food because it's absorbed by the plant as it grows. Some plants absorb more than others, and rice seems to absorb the most among commonly eaten foods. The FDA has even set a limit on the amount of inorganic arsenic allowed in infant rice cereal. But the FDA has not set a limit on the amount of plain rice adults should eat
  4. Consumer Reports will tell you how much arsenic is in your rice. New data and guidelines are important for everyone but especially for gluten avoiders

Arsenic in rice Food Standards Agenc

Can Arsenic Be Removed from Rice? To some extent, arsenic can be washed off. Arsenic is water soluble. Published studies indicate that cooking rice in excess water (from six to 10 parts water to one part rice), and draining the excess water, can reduce 40 to 60% of the inorganic arsenic content, depending on the type of rice.. And a 2015 study published in PLOS ONE, found a cooking method that. This makes the arsenic locked in the soil more readily available, meaning that more can be absorbed into the rice grains. 'Dose dependent' This is why rice contains about 10-20 times more arsenic. Due to problems related to analysis of (inorganic) arsenic in a number of food commodities, maximum levels for arsenic have initially only been set for rice and derived products. Once reliable analytical methods became available, a monitoring campaign for arsenic covering the period 2016-2018 was organised

Rice has around 10 to 20 times more arsenic than other cereal crops because it is grown in flooded fields which make it much easier for arsenic to leave the soil and enter the rice, notes an. Though their rice is lower in arsenic than other brands, it still contains some arsenic and should be properly prepared to reduce arsenic even more. Eat Less Rice If you can't always follow these guidelines for safer rice keep your rice intake to about 1 serving a week (especially for kids) and no rice for babies Buy Rice from Companies that Test for Arsenic. Some brands of rice regularly test for arsenic. Others don't. Lundberg Farms is one brand that is very transparent about the problems of arsenic in rice. The company also actively works to protect its customers Whatever rice you're preparing, be it high-arsenic brown or low-arsenic basmati, to minimize arsenic content, wash the rice first, Urbach says. Cook six cups of water to one cup of rice, discard all the water during the process and replace it with two cups of fresh water. Finish cooking. Rinse the finished product in yet more water. Ta da To help keep arsenic exposure low, the European Commission has set maximum limits for arsenic in rice and rice-based products, including rice cakes and rice destined for production of food for infants and young children. These came into force in January 2016, and are shown in the table below

Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal.Arsenic is a metalloid.It has various allotropes, but only the gray form, which has a metallic appearance, is important to industry.. The primary use of arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car. In rice grains, FDA found levels of 2.6 to 7.2 micrograms of inorganic arsenic (brown rice at the high end) per serving, while the rice products ranged from 0.1 to 6.6 micrograms (rice pasta at the high end) per serving Brown rice in most instances is lower in arsenic than white rice because of where its shipped from; I have seen wild rice getting shipped in bulk from China, and the rice shipped from there usually has higher arsenic levels. 2-3 times a week is not much cause for concern Dr McDougall on Arsenic in Rice Vegan Footsoldier. Loading... Unsubscribe from Vegan Footsoldier? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 12.5K. Loading.

Yes, There Is Arsenic In Your Rice

White rice grown in Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas, which account for 76 percent of domestic rice, generally had higher levels of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in our tests than. Professor Andrew Meharg - Reducing Arsenic in Rice Queen's University Belfast. Loading Rice has arsenic in it — don't freak out, here's the science - Duration: 10:13

Which Rice Has the Least Arsenic? - Consumer Report

Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment Report (PDF, 7.3MB) March 2016 Note: you may request access to the risk model related to this risk assessment by sending a note to. Arsenic is a metalloid element that forms a number of poisonous compounds. It is widely distributed throughout the Earth's crust, and can be released into the atmosphere and water through natural and human activities. Soluble inorganic arsenic is highly acutely toxic It is very easy to cook rice in order to make a simple and quick meal.Rice can be used to make risotto, sushi and even rice pudding.While rice is recommended in a healthy eating plate as great source of energy, there are concerns over the levels of arsenic in rice.Arsenic is a known carcinogen that can contaminate rice crops through the soil and water It turns out that rice, a staple food for so many cultures around the world, contains arsenic. But do rice-loving Australians need to worry about that? Thankfully, it seems we don't. Here's what.

Arsenic in Rice: Everything You Need to Know to Stay Saf

This guidance established a proposed action level for inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereals of 100 micrograms per kilogram (µg/kg) or 100 parts per billion (ppb) and identified the FDA's. Two other sources of arsenic, especially of some concern for children, is arsenic in groundwater and subsequently, in rice that is grown in such groundwater. Rice is a common food for children but to date, there are no regulations about the levels of arsenic that are considered safe for consumption Much of the arsenic in rice can be removed by thoroughly rinsing the grains before cooking. It's a practice we have been observing from the day we learned to cook rice. Some cooks are against rinsing claiming that a lot of minerals go into the rinsing water and into the drain Arsenic is used industrially as an alloying agent, as well as in the processing of glass, pigments, textiles, paper, metal adhesives, wood preservatives and ammunition. Arsenic is also used in the hide tanning process and, to a limited extent, in pesticides, feed additives and pharmaceuticals. Tobacc Arsenic is an element of concern given its toxicological significance, even at low concentrations. Food is a potential route of exposure to inorganic arsenic and in this regard arsenic in rice is associated with soil contamination, fertilizer application, and the use of arsenic-containing irrigation water. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the regional rice crops with a view to future.

Should I worry about arsenic in my rice? - BBC New

  1. erals, most commonly, however, in a
  2. High levels of arsenic (As) in rice grain are a potential concern for human health. Variability in total As in rice was evaluated using 204 commercial rice samples purchased mostly in retail stores in upstate New York and supplemented with samples from Canada, France, Venezuela, and other countries. Total As concentration in rice varied from 0.005 to 0.710 mg kg−1
  3. Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children
  4. Arsenic is a very toxic trace element. Throughout history, people have been ingesting it, either knowingly or unknowingly. This problem seems to be getting even worse, as more and more arsenic is making its way into people's food, particularly rice. Rice is a staple food for a huge percentage of the world's population, which opens [
  5. High levels of arsenic (As) in rice grain are a potential concern for human health. Variability in total As in rice was evaluated using 204 commercial rice samples purchased mostly in retail stores in upstate New York and supplemented with samples from Canada, France, Venezuela, and other countries. Total As concentration in rice varied from 0.005 to 0.710 mg kg−1
  6. How to Avoid Arsenic in Rice. Rice is a very versatile grain that can be enjoyed on its own or found in a wide variety of foods and beverages. However, rice also absorbs arsenic during its growing process, some of which can be transferred..
  7. g country in the world and accounts for a third of the global supply of rice [ 8 , 9 ]

Arsenic Food Safety - European Commissio

The accumulation of carcinogenic arsenic in rice, the world's main staple crop, represents a health threat to millions of people. The speciation of arsenic controls its mobility and. agronomy Review Arsenic Accumulation in Rice and Probable Mitigation Approaches: A Review Anindita Mitra 1, Soumya Chatterjee 2, Roxana Moogouei 3 and Dharmendra K. Gupta 4,* 1 Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura, West Bengal 722101, India; aninditajashmitra@rediffmail.com 2 Defence Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) Arsenic in juice has made headlines in recent days, but experts say levels of arsenic in rice are just as concerning.Rice is the largest dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a known carcinogen Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body. If arsenic poisoning occurs over a brief period of time symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, encephalopathy, and watery diarrhea that contains blood. Long-term exposure can result in thickening of the skin, darker skin, abdominal pain, diarrhea, heart disease, numbness, and cancer

Arsenic also escapes into water while cooking, but if all of the water evaporates (as it does during the usual methods of cooking rice), the arsenic is absorbed back into the grains Sept. 19, 2012 -- Arsenic is found in a wide variety of rice and rice products, sometimes at levels that are higher than safe limits set for drinking water, new tests confirm Inorganic arsenic in rice is of particular concern because: Rice tends to absorb arsenic more than other crops from the water and soil where they are grown. This is partly due to the increased arsenic naturally present in many areas where rice is grown Abstract. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major dietary source of not only cadmium (Cd) but also inorganic arsenic (iAs) in populations that consume rice as a staple food.When rice is cultivated under aerobic conditions, Cd in the paddy soil is solubilized and more likely to accumulate in the grain

Soak rice overnight to reduce risk of heart disease

How to cook rice to remove the most arsenic TreeHugge

Arsenic in Rice (& How to Avoid It) Wellness Mam

  1. Had the problem of planting rice in arsenic pesticide-soaked former cotton fields been addressed, then safe soil could have been identified, low-arsenic rice varieties developed—instead of just developing arsenic-resistant varieties, so the plants can build up excessive levels of arsenic without dying themselves
  2. Arsenic levels of rice in grains, straws, roots, and soils were obtained from 15 rice paddies, selected based on different arsenic soil concentrations ranging from 67 to 438 mg kg−1 (n = 15)
  3. How Rice Overcomes Arsenic Researchers have discovered a transporter protein in rice that sequesters arsenic in vacuoles, preventing the toxic element from traveling into grains. Kate Yandell Oct 20, 2014. CHARLES HAYNES, FLICKR Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple crop for half of the world's population, but it can accumulate high levels of arsenic
  4. ing the arsenic content of a particular rice product may be difficult (or impossible) without actually measuring it in a lab

4 Ways to Avoid the Huge Problem of Arsenic in Rice

  1. Rice contains arsenic, Consumer Reports proclaimed in a riveting 2012 study. In an update (and video, above) in the January 2015 issue of the magazine, Consumer Reports gives us the answers to.
  2. According to the researchers, inorganic arsenic accumulation in bran layers of the rice grain is a likely explanation for the higher inorganic arsenic concentrations measured in brown rice. However, the reason why enriched white rice grain contains higher organic arsenic concentrations than brown or non-enriched white rice is not clear and may be an artifact of the small sample size of each.
  3. g rice as a staple food. Reducing their accumulation in rice grain is important for food safety and human health. We review recent progress in understanding the biogeochemical processes.
  4. Arsenic from rock deposits is present in ground water in many parts of the world, and crops grown in these areas, especially those grown in standing water, can accumulate small amounts of arsenic in the seeds. Rice is of course the best example. I..
  5. If you knew there was arsenic in your food, would you eat it? More importantly, would you serve it to your children? Recently, Consumer Reports Magazine released their analysis of arsenic levels in rice products, and the results were concerning. Popular rice products including white rice, brown rice, organic rice baby cereal, and rice breakfast cereals, were all found to contain arsenic, a.
Experiment for Arsenic Accumulation into Rice Cultivated

Rice has, typically, ten times more inorganic arsenic than other foods and, as the European Food Standards Authority have reported, people who eat a lot of rice are exposed to worrying concentrations Rice with arsenic levels of 1.8 mg/kg has been recorded in the arsenic-affected tubewell areas of Bangladesh . Even at dangerous levels of arsenic in drinking water of 1 mg/l, rice arsenic levels of 1.8 mg/kg contribute ∼30% to dietary arsenic intake. Arsenic contamination of rice is a newly uncovered disaster on a massive scale. It is. Rice drinks can also be high in arsenic, and children younger than 5 shouldn't drink them instead of milk. Arsenic is an element that makes up earth's crust, with high levels of the substance found in soil, rocks, and water. Inorganic arsenic is a combination of natural arsenic and other elements, including oxygen and sulfur

Yes, rice has arsenic, but here's why you don't need to

The Doctors: Is There Arsenic in Rice? Recent studies about Arsenic in Rice have been in the news a lot lately. Dr. Travis Stork said one study from Consumer Reports said that if you eat rice once a day, you could increase arsenic levels in your body up to 44%, which is a worrisome level.. Dr. Lisa Masterson said they tested infant cereal, rice, pasta and drinks and found that brown rice. Brown rice generally contains more arsenic than white rice. That's because the arsenic concentrates in the husk and the bran, which are mostly polished off during white-rice processing. One study that found high levels of arsenic was specifically focused on organic brown rice products The only polished rice sample collected from a farm with high total arsenic, Preak Russey-2, contained 138 μg/kg inorganic arsenic (Table 4, Appendix 2 in the IDRC report)17 and would pass the more stringent Chinese guideline discussed by Meharg et al.25 The ratio of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic in site Preak Russey-2 polished rice is lower than other polished rice (0.55, Table 4.

By Steven Reinberg. HealthDay Reporter. FRIDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The levels of arsenic found in rice aren't high enough to be a short-term concern to consumers, the U.S. Food and Drug. Rice cereal is babies' top source of arsenic exposure. Why rice cereal contains arsenic: Rice readily absorbs arsenic from the environment, about 10 times more of it than other grains. A new study found arsenic in all brands of infant rice cereal tested, and lower levels in all brands of non-rice and multi-grain cereals Rice and rice-based products are widely used for weaning and as baby food, due to their nutritional benefits and relatively low allergic potential - but, according to the European Food Safety Authority, children are two-three times more susceptible to arsenic risks than adults due to their lower body weight Rice and rice products are a particular concern because they are a major food source in many parts of the world and are included in the diets of many infants and children. The FDA has proposed a limit of 100 ppb for inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereal Results. In supermarket-bought rice, arsenic was present entirely in the inorganic form compared to greenhouse-grown rice (using irrigation water contaminated with sodium arsenate), where most (~ 86%) arsenic was present as dimethylarsinic acid (organic arsenic)

Arsenic in rice - is it a cause for concern? - British

Arsenic Testing Results. The chart below shows the means over the eight years of testing our brown rice compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by CODEX. The mean inorganic arsenic (iAs) contents of LFF brown rice for each year are less than one third of the CODEX standard for ML 0.35 ppm of iAs in brown rice Cook rice in a lot of water and then drain the extra liquid off. This will help to reduce the amount of arsenic. If you're lucky to purchase rice grown in the Himalayan region like Nepal, North Pakistan, and North India, be sure you use this type of rice since it contains little to no arsenic Contamination can be present right in the drinking water. Also, plants can absorb and store arsenic from water and from the soil. In today's globalized world, food containing arsenic can be distributed to additional population centers, even in areas where until recently arsenic contamination was not a problem. Rice in particular has the. Abstract. Root aeration, arsenic (As) accumulation, and speciation in rice of 20 different genotypes with regular irrigation of water containing 0.4 mg As l −1 were investigated. Different genotypes had different root anatomy demonstrated by entire root porosity (ranging from 12.43% to 33.21%), which was significantly correlated with radial oxygen loss (ROL) (R=0.64, P<0.01) Contamination of rice with arsenic is a major problem in some regions of the world with high rice consumption. Now, researchers reporting in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology have.

Arsenic - Wikipedi

  1. While students can't evaluate the relationship of arsenic and rice—or the impact of arsenic on human biology—as easily, a firsthand investigation of heavy metals and the consequences of increased levels, and of buildup, can help students better understand the unfolding news and research related to arsenic
  2. In 2012, a team of Dartmouth scientists released the results of a shocking study showing the arsenic content in brown rice and products containing brown rice derivatives like brown rice syrup. They found that most of the products had levels of arsenic significantly higher than the allowable 10 ppb for water, with brown rice syrup leading the pack at 400 ppb
  3. With rice being the main staple crop in Asian countries such as China, Korea and Japan, the detection of arsenic (As), an element known to be carcinogenic to humans, has been the topic of high public interest. In this study, the total arsenic content in 200 white and 104 brown rice samples collected in Korea 2014 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistr

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for. For example, rice may easily absorb certain arsenic compounds because arsenic is similar in size to compounds containing silicon (an essential nutrient for rice). Rice is also typically grown in flooded fields, which promote the formation of arsenic compounds that may be easily absorbed by the rice plant

Arsenic toxicity in dog food with brown rice--should you

FDA Warning: Arsenic in Brown Rice - Organic

Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products. While rice is a healthy component of a balanced diet, it has more arsenic in it than other grains. If you eat rice or rice products regularly, you may be increasing your chances of long-term health problems Arsenic Factsheet. People can also be exposed to inorganic arsenic by eating such foods as rice and some fruit juices. and several types of cancer. Inorganic arsenic and arsenic compounds are considered to be cancer-causing chemicals. Studies have not found organic arsenic in seafood to be toxic to humans Rice products are often considered a safe option for babies and young children, but our research suggests that for more than half of the rice we sampled, infants should be limited to just 20g per day to avoid risks associated with arsenic Popular rice products that are consumed in large amounts include infant cereals, ready-to-eat cereals, rice cakes, rice pasta, rice flour, rice crackers, and rice milk. An analysis of these types of products by Consumer Reports revealed measurable (significant) levels of inorganic arsenic, which is the type that should be avoided

Microbe mobilizes &#39;iron shield&#39; to block arsenic uptake inGoing Inside the Rice Microbiome - The New York Times

Arsenic in Rice NutritionFacts

summary. Rice millers in the UK and elsewhere in the EU regularly monitor their products for the presence of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The overwhelming majority of rice is consumed as grain rather than in processed foods Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are considered as priority environmental pollutants and their accumulation in crop plants particularly in rice has posed a great health risk. This study endeavored to investigate As and Sb contents in paired soil-rice samples obtained from Xikuangshan, the world largest active Sb mining region, situated in China, and to investigate As speciation and location in.

Eat rice and rice products no more than a few times a week. Don't give your children rice and rice products more than 4 times a week. Cook the rice in plenty of water and drain afterwards reducing the amount of arsenic by more than half. Don't give rice cakes to children younger than 6 years old. There are many delicious alternatives, e.g. People around the world consume rice in their daily diets. But in addition to its nutrient and caloric content, rice can contain small amounts of arsenic, which in large doses is a toxin linked to. Put your rice in a fine strainer and rinse it until the water running through it comes out clear. Draining or soaking your rice beforehand, which many authentic rice recipes call for anyway, may reduce arsenic levels by 25 to 30 percent, according to a Chicago Tribune article. This step, of course, assumes that your water supply isn't a worse arsenic-offender than the rice itself: John.

Arsenic in rice Advice on safe levels of arsenic in rice and rice milk. Arsenic is a substance that is naturally present in the environment. This means it gets into food and water in varying amounts in different regions of the world. It's impossible to eliminate arsenic from food. Having too much arsenic in our diet could be harmful to our. Thus polished white rice (i.e. basmati, jasmine) and pre-cooked instant white rice will contain the least amount of arsenic. Because there is little control of where our store-bought rice is coming from or how its cultivated, it has been recommended to rinse the rice initially, soaking, and cooking in a large amount of water (6-12 times more water than rice), and then discarding the water

Basmati rice may be associated with several health benefits. Low in arsenic. Compared with other types of rice, basmati is generally lower in arsenic, a heavy metal that can harm your health and. Rice is different than other grains — it takes up arsenic more readily from the environment, according to the FDA. Some seafood also has high levels of the less-toxic form of arsenic (organic. Studies done by Consumer Reports in 2013 on the amount of inorganic arsenic—a known carcinogen- in rice showed that one serving a day of rice cereal or one rice cake would put children over the limit for the amount of arsenic they should have in a week. Rice drinks shouldn't be given to children under 5 at all. And the FDA now recommends.

Researchers discover how to cut worrying levels of arsenic

Rice test results. In September, Consumer Reports released results of its analysis of 223 rice samples, which included white and brown, organic and conventionally grown, domestic and imported, and brand-name and storebrand rices. It also tested rice-based products, such as rice cereals, beverages, pasta, flour and crackers. Virtually all were found to contain both inorganic arsenic (a known. FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There's a danger lurking in rice and you won't find it by reading labels. It's the chemical arsenic. And the threat isn't about immediate poisoning but rather that long-term exposure to small amounts can increase the risk of bladder, lung and skin cancer, heart disease and diabetes Rice from Texas were among the highest in arsenic. (7) With regards to brown rice, it normally has 80% more inorganic arsenic on average than white rice of the same type. Brown basmati from California, India and Pakistan appears to be the best choice and has about a third less inorganic arsenic than other brown rice. (7

Boiling the rice in a 6:1 water-to-rice ratio (sort of how you'd cook pasta), draining the excess water once cooked, has been shown to remove up to 60 percent of arsenic levels in rice Rice-based food were a top source of heavy metals in the report. Rice-based foods, especially rice cereals, were a top source of heavy metals in the report. Four of the seven rice cereals tested exceeded the FDA's safety limit for inorganic arsenic. Even so, rice cereal doesn't need to be eliminated entirely, according to Anderson Draining rice fields periodically, growing rice with alternate wetting and drying, or on raised beds with water in a furrow are all practices that farmers can use to reduce arsenic in rice. Our experience is that total arsenic can be reduced to about half of the value obtained when rice is grown in a flooded field

Consumer Reports is urging U.S. limits for arsenic in rice after tests of more than 60 popular products - from Kellogg's Rice Krispies to Gerber infant cereal - showed most contained some level of. In your pursuit of less arsenic in your rice, it's helpful to know that rice purchased from California growers has about half the arsenic as rice produced in Louisiana. This is because arsenic-based insecticides, before being banned in 1988, were extensively used to kill boll weevils on cotton crops grown in the southeastern US (Arkansas, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri. Brown rice generally contains more arsenic than white rice as most of it is concentrated in the germ which is removed by the refining process. Brown Basmati rice contains lower levels of arsenic. People in places like Bangladesh, where rice is a staple food and eaten three times a day, suffer from symptoms of long term arsenic poisoning In this podcast, learn why rice and other foods sometimes contain arsenic and get tips on how to reduce your exposure. Experts Mary Lou Guerinot, Ph.D. , is the Ronald and Deborah Harris professor of biological sciences at Dartmouth College and associate director of the Dartmouth Toxic Metals Superfund Research Program Eliminating exposure from arsenic in rice. Now that we know that brown rice has more arsenic in it than white rice, and that Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas have high arsenic because of residual arsenic in their soils, it is relatively easy to choose the right rice, if you decide to consume it

Arsenic. October 2019. Summary. Arsenic is a naturally occurring mineral that causes bladder, lung and skin cancer as well as harm to the skin and lungs. Arsenic is found in drinking water in all 50 states, and can also contaminate food, particularly rice and rice-based products Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice. There have been a number of recent reports published concerning the levels of arsenic found in rice and rice products . Consumer Reports in the United States is recommending that people limit their rice consumption, after finding arsenic in over 60 rice products they tested Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products BfR Opinion No. 018/2015 of 24 June 2014 Arsenic occurs in various concentrations everywhere in the soil. It has been known for quite some time that cereals such as rice can contain more arsenic in the form of inorganic arsenic compounds (also known as inorganic arsenic) from the environment than other cereal. Arsenic in rice You might not know it, but you likely eat more than 20 pounds of rice every year. It might be sushi, rice pudding, rice milk, or just rice that's part of a comfort-food dinner

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